Pig farming is apparently one of the biggest and latest trends in the Nigerian farming industry. Although pig farming has existed for so long like any other form of farming, several farmers are now delving into it’s industry.
The objective of this post is thus to educate farmers and individuals developing a prospect into pig farming in Nigeria.
Pig farming refers to the art or culture of rearing pigs for money. This art could be monetized in several ways. These include;
- Sale of pork (pig meat)- This is one of the most popular in Nigeria. As pig meat is not as common as cow, goat and chicken, sale of limited pork meat has become a good business for farmers. Farmers rear pigs, kill them and then sell to food vendors and other individuals with interest in pork meat, they thus make a good living out of this endeavour.
- Sale of piglets- This is another endeavor that has constantly enriched pig farmers. Pigs are known to give birth to off springs in explosive numbers. An healthy pig could reproduce up to 10 piglets or more at once. Sale of these piglets to individiuals who are newly entering the farm also serve a living to the farmers.
What Do I Need To Start Pig Farming?
What you need to start pig farming depends on the type of farming approach you choose to engage. There are several types of pig farming. They include but not limited to- free range, outdoor bred pig farming, Stall pig farming, Indoor Intensive housing pig farming and so on. Any approach chosen will determine your needs and capital required. However, pig farming is generally not so expensive as some other types such as poultry farming and so on.
Common Pig Diseases And Treatments.
It is important to discuss the common diseases that could raveage a flock of pig in order to keep your pigs healthy and not crash your investment. There are several diseases which could be particular to a specific environment and the specie/breed of your flock, we shall only discuss few which are common to all.
Pigs that suffer from dysentery have diarrhea, with or without the presence of blood. This disease is caused by the bacteria Brachyspira hyodsenteriae. Pigs that suffer from dysentery in the post-weaning stage have reduced growth rate; in more severe cases sudden death can occur.
Swine dysentery is also treated with antibiotics which are given through feed or water, or as injectable substances. To reduce the infection, it’s recommended to reduce the stock density. Improving hygiene and rodent control can also significantly help prevent and reduce the potential of infection. Rodents are important when it comes to the spreading of swine dysentery. The disease can occur when new stock is introduced on the farm, so it’s important to always buy pigs from reliable sources and to request a thorough medical check-up.
Mastitis is a disease present in sows and it has symptoms such as reduced milk production, higher body temperature and loss of appetite. The disease is caused by a bacterial infection of the mammary glands, where skin discolorations can be observed. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs are the most efficient treatment for mastitis. Usually, a combination of oxytocin and corticosteroids is prescribed to treat mastitis.
Like in the case of other pig diseases, improving hygiene in farrowing houses is extremely important. Healthy nutrition during the late pregnancy stage is an important factor to increase immunity. Stress is also considered a factor in the occurrence of mastitis, especially if the teats may suffer damages in the sow housing facilities. Mastitis has an important effect on productivity because the number of piglets weaned by sows can be significantly reduced.
Exudative dermatitis (greasy pig disease)
This disease is caused by an infection with the Staphylococcus hyicus bacteria and it manifests through skin lesions. Mortality can occur due to greasy pig disease in severe cases that are left untreated. The lesions first appear as dark spots on the skin, which spread and become flaky, with a greasy feel.
The infection is treated with antibiotics, skin protectants, and autogenous vaccines. One of the best prevention methods is to improve hygiene conditions in the piglet housing areas. It is also recommended to perform teat dipping on the sows as well as pre- and post-farrowing. By reducing the potential of skin abrasions, the infection is prevented from entering the piglet’s system. Skin abrasions can be caused by rough floors, sharp equipment, jagged teeth or mites’ bites.
These above are among the most common pig diseases. You’re advised to read more on this before you commit to pig farming.